QC Service

Quality Control Service



What are most Western companies concerns regarding purchasing from China? Quality!

Many companies have had their fingers burnt, and are wary of going through the same experience twice. Quite understandable, as most Chinese factories require up-front payment. How to overcome this mistrust? We are a Chinese/European company established as a result of this disillusionment with the lack of accurate Quality control.

UGI One-stop QC Service

Our approach is to educate the local QC staff to our stringent standards, after all you cannot expect anyone to successfully inspect a steering wheel if they are used to driving a horse and cart! The solution is for us to be your QC arm in China, so avoiding costly trips by your own staff. We can offer a one-stop service for supplier evaluation, production process supervision, finished product inspection, packing supervision and liaison with logistics companies.

Our value-added service

Our fundamental goal as a company is to help buyers avoid encountering Quality problems. For example, due to Intellectual Property concerns, buyers can be hesitant to give a Chinese supplier too much information about assembly specs, packaging & branding. So the components can be shipped to our Assembly/Inspection center where we perform assembly and final packaging under a secure Chinese/European management system but at local labour rates. Shipping costs are reduced through freight consolidation and quality control issues are dealt with on-the-spot before goods are shipped out of China.

Product Quality Manual

We use a Product Quality Manual (PQM) the documentation in which conforms to ISO standards and is from an actual project and is typical of the professional work instructions and inspection criteria used by us.

Highlights include:

  • Clear revision management procedures
  • Total transparency to client regarding identity of sub-suppliers
  • Well defined quality standards, inspection methods and assembly process
  • All internal QC data/ results are made available for client review
  • Unit and lot traceability in terms of Bill of Material (BOM) used, Dates and Personnel involved in the assembly/inspection process


Rich QC Experience with Diverse Industries

As we have clients in quality-sensitive industries such as Automotive, Military and Medical, we have chosen to apply an advanced QC system to all of our projects. This ensures that we always meet or exceed our clients' expectations in terms of required documentation and QC systems regardless of product type/industry.

Warehouse service

Our warehouse provides a centralized, secure, reliable environment for inspection (in-bound quality control, in-process QC, final QC), assembly, custom packaging and freight consolidation. Information is kept confidential and products are looked after in a professional manner. Inventory Levels can be monitored daily on-line.


Most trading companies, brokers and even manufacturers in China may not offer a warranty. We have the confidence to provide a full warranty on our workmanship because every assembly/inspection project utilizes an industry-leading, ISO compliant, "Product Quality Manual (PQM)" which defines in intimate detail the quality standards, inspection methods and the assembly process.

Preaction VS. Reaction

Our all-inclusive, cost effective QC service provides a preventative solution to whatever fears you may have regarding end quality, as we strongly believe that it is best to avoid reaction fire-fighting once the problem occurs.




Quality Policy

Supplier Assessment

Finish Product Inspection (Garment)




Appendix I SupplierAssessment

Supplier Assessment Survey



Part 1 General Info

Supplier Name:          
Supplier Location:          
Supplier Contacts: Name Title Phone No. Mobile Email
Supplier Key People: Name Title Phone No. Mobile Email
Capital invested (Ownership)          
Product Range:          
Annual sales volume:          
Overseas markets:          


Part 2 Quality system and process control

Total quality management: Are you ISO registered?
  What registration?
  Which registration organization?
  Internal Quality Manual existed?
  Any documents show continuous improvement in factory quality system?
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Management responsibility: Quality objectives are clearly stated to all stakeholders?
  A widely used Quality Policy Manual exists?
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Design control: The design process is carefully documented and followed by all engineers?
  Reliability database, Feasibility Analysis and Process Management plans are used for New
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Production Management: Explain your systems used to ensure your manufacturing systems are in control?
  Can you demonstrate capability in changing (increasing/decreasing) capacity plans?
  What systems are in place to manage inventories (MRP, ERP, JIT, etc.)
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Packing Is the packing of work in progress adequate to safeguard mechanical shock, environmental damage within the plant?
  Is the packing of finished products adequate to safeguard against damage?
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Warehouse Management: Explain how you manage adequate storage availability and control?
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Document control: Does the supplier maintain a master list of quality documents?
  Manufacturing, process documents are under control?
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Quality records: Are adequate records of inspection and process control maintained for each lot?
  How well are quality data used as a basis for action and quality improvement?
  Does the quality records cover inspection reports, test data, qualification report, audit records, material review reports?
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Internal quality audit: Does the audit plan cover the specific activities, areas and frequency of audit?
  Does the audit plan define the qualifications of personnel carrying out the audits?
  Does the audit plan cover reporting findings, conclusions and recommendations?
  Does the audit plan cover all areas of activity in the factory, including manufacturing, marketing, design, facilities, etc.?
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Process control In house documentation identifies what test procedures were used for a given lot of product
  A detailed Process Management Plan exists with well-identified process control steps and critical
  The Process Management Plan is updated when major process changes are made
  Statistical Methods are used to ensure adequate process control of final product
  Product is inspected against standard criteria defined in supplier's documentation
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Purchasing management All purchased material requirements are adequately specified
  The company has appropriate technical communications with all of its key suppliers
  An effective procured material and services quality improvement program exists
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Product traceability In-process and final product is traceable to incoming materials used equipment
  Final product is adequately identified and uniquely traceable to parent product batch
  Product marking shows origin and manufacturing location?
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Customer service A clear definition of responsibility is understood by all customer service employees
  Each customer requirements are well understood and reviewed prior to production
  All customer concerns are documented and used to drive continuous quality improvement
  Total available points:
  Total points:
Training A formal documented training system exists for all employees
  A formal training staff is used with train the trainer special requirements addressed
  Ongoing training addresses continuous improvement in all areas of the quality
  Total available points:
  Total points:


Part 3 Total Marks, comments & Conclusions

Total marks:






Appendix II Finish Product Inspection


(sample inspection policy only for ref)


The purpose of this handbook is to contribute towards optimising the quality assurance of UGI and our suppliers. The assurance of quality is not always a question of price; improved attention for the 'quality' aspect is usually sufficient to improve the final product by a much higher level of quality with the same components and employment. Therefore, UGI has very strict regulations regarding quality in our sourcing & buying service. We are open to any new suggestions from our buyers as well our suppliers to improve working process.

During our production the following inspections are taken to follow your orders, and reported to all stakeholders both from internal and external parties.


Line inspectors


  1. All seams for cracking, missed stitches, tension of machines right, needle damage.
  2. All top and cover stitches clean and at right tension.
  3. Placket for breaking out at bottom corner.
  4. Cross stitches of placket nice and straight in the middle.
  5. Seams need to be stretched with force to control needle holes.
  6. Shoulder tape is not twisted and extra fabric stitched in the shoulder part.
  7. Twin needle stitching around neck-armholes is not cracking.
  8. Twin needle hemming to ensure no raw edges are visible
  9. Sew in labels are positioned at the centre of the shirt and label is not placed to deep in the seam.
  10. Collars are market to the correct measurement.


Table inspectors


  1. Measure the garment total regarding measuring sheet.
  2. Check if a collar is attached evenly, and if there is no puckering at the front neck
  3. Turn the garment and remove the lot stickers
  4. Check the seams at needle damage to stretch the seams.
  5. Check if the label is at right positions in the garment.




  1. Press garments flat, never folded with the sleeves under it as this leaves sleeve
  2. impression marks at the garment.
  3. Do not iron (press) a placket, only steam this!
  4. Do not place iron direct onto the collar, only use lightly steam.
  5. Garment should be carefully pressed to avoid distortion.
  6. Garment must not be over-pressed and glazing-shining effects must not be evident.


Packing -final examination


  1. Packing instruction must be followed and special instruction discussed with QC
  2. Garment should be packed in an approval bags, with the front of the garment face up.
  3. All labels, barcode's, special stickers should be checked regarding this order, style
    color and size.
  4. Cartons must be cleared with the order and customer and special remarks must be
  5. Remarks at each carton must be numbered by the lot number and placed at the
    packing list of this order by article number, color, size and quantity.
  6. Packing of carton must be standard, one tape over the length of the carton and two plastic nylon tapes in the width.
  7. In case of remarks at carton a waterproof ink must be used.




  1. Each private label promotional textiles project will have a standard fee for Parcel and clearing the goods
  2. Before sending a style sample or detail in some cases we first make a digital picture and mail this to you to avoid extra parcel cost.
  3. In case a customer did not requested a sample for approval, as production sample, lab dip proof print or embroidery or any other to approve detail, the customer takes the full responsibility and except the goods than as we deliver them.


Sewing operation standards


The purpose of this part is to mention the standards for quality in the different departments.




All Seams must be neatly and securely fastened off, with no loose or long ends. The seams must not have any needle damage and be correctly balanced i.e. no grinning.
The following requirements are general standards in our production.
Stitches per cm.
Standard knitted garments 10-12 stitches per 2.5 cm
Standard woven garments 12-14 stitches per 2.5 cm
Type of stitching.
Standards knitted garments Tops 4 thread overlock or 3 thread with 5mm bight.
Fleece fabrics Tops and bottoms 4 thread overlock with minimum 7mm bight.
Standards woven garments Tops and bottoms 5 thread safety stitch with 10 mm bight or thread overlock with 7mm bight.




Broken needles must be reported to the line manager by the broken needle reports. Needles not complete traced during replacement must be removed from the standard garments and detected to trace the needle and remove this from the garment.
Always use number 7 needles in standard knitted garments and not 9 in order to prevent needle damage .

  1. Operator should ever be in possession of any needles other than those which are used in the machine.
  2. By replacement the line manager will hand over the new needle, and reports reasons and checks if the old needle is complete found. Reports must be hand over to the QC manager.
  3. Broken needles must be removed from the production floor after replacement.

All we do to not get any broken needles in our production you need to scan them by a metal detection and we do not accept any responsibility for broken needles in our production others as you request and we charge extra for scanning our garments.


Button and button hole

  1. Buttons must be attached using lockstitch button sewing machines. A minimum 14 stitches is required.
  2. Button attachment must be checked minimum 2 times a day of after technical service.
  3. Button hole size for woven fabrics 2 mm larger than the diameter of the button. button hole's in knitted fabrics same size as button diameter.
  4. The hole's must be checked at clean cut and no loose ends, others knife blades must be sharp or replaced.
  5. New type or dyed buttons must be checked at colorfastness during washing.




  1. All used zippers must be purchased from approved suppliers or require an official test report.
  2. Number, length, brand, type of zipper must be approved during sampling period and cannot be changed without permission from the customer and account manager.
  3. Pin lock zippers are not allowed, untested unknown zippers or suppliers from zippers are not allowed to use.
  4. Auto-lock zippers are preferred, Semi-lock can be used with customer approval.
  5. Zippers must be checked on sharp edges (not allowed)
  6. Pullers of zippers must be approved by customer and in line with the product, pullers must be checked for color fastness and breaking during use. By doubt needed to be tested extern and reported to account manager and customer.
  7. Zips need to lay flat, fabric must not pucker, must be checked by QC - Zip slider must move without obstruction.
  8. Zipper may not have loose ends - the slider must not be removed or move easily.



  1. All labels and design must be checked at colors and drawing from the general approved presentation.
  2. Care instruction at loop labels must be checked according project and fabric.
  3. Stitched seam space must be enough to view complete logo or slogan after placement in the garment.
  4. We do not accept claims on labeling, others as we send a label for approval.


General accessories

  1. All other use accessories dyed are checked for colorfastness if mention at pre-production list.
  2. All other accessories need to meet the requirements and checked for this by quality management.
  3. Specific points must be mentioned at the quality reports file to follow from account management and follow up by QC manager to avoid errors, as stoppers, silicone badges, elastics and other accessories to report this to our buyers before production.


General standard of inspection rules (AQL) Acceptable quality level


1. AQL major defects= 2.5 per 100
2. AQL minor defects= 4 per 100

Tolerance of measuring inspection

Type of garment

Measuring (CM)


Measuring length






Under 6 cm

+/- 5 %


From 6-15 cm

+/- 5 %


From 15-65 cm

+/- 5 %


From 65- 130 cm

+/- 5 %



+/- 5 %





Under 6 cm

+/- 3.5 %


From 6-14

+/- 3.5 %


From 15-65 cm

+/- 3.5 %


From 65-130 cm

+/- 3.5 %



+/- 3.5 %



Critical defect


It's a defect that judgment and experience indicate is likely to result in hazardous or unsafe conditions for individuals using, maintaining, or depending upon product.


Major defect


It's a defect other than critical, that is likely to result in failure, or to reduce materially the usability of the unit of products for its intended purpose.


Minor defect


It's a defect that is not likely to reduce materially the usability of the unit of product for its intended purpose.


Fabric defect


  1. Thick, thin, or slub yarns not acceptable.
  2. Dead seed left in yarn-fabric which is evident when dyed is unacceptable.
  3. Bar lines are unacceptable unless yarn dyed fabric twisted and mentioned before.
  4. Dyeing faults are unacceptable, uneven dyeing faults era unacceptable.
  5. Number of holes during knitting has to be reported before acceptance of order others no hole's are excepted.



Quality section: Knitted fabrics Fabric construction: All
A. This sheet contains the minimum performance standards
B. This standard is made for guaranty of products for price and quality level.
C. All fabrics produced for Identity and mention under above level have to meet the standard performance as below. Identity test all the fabrics internal for their own use, extern testing by a laboratory will be charged to our customers and can be handed out, internal testing cannot be handed out.



Appearance following machine wash and tumble dry standard term stipulated.



As per rules stipulated



Azo dye-formaldehyde content-heavy metal content-pcp content-release of nickel (see list below )
All Azo dyestuff which can be decomposed into one of the following 20 amines are strictly prohibited!
4-aminodiphenly benzidine / 4-chlore-o-toluidine / 2-naphthylamine / o-aminoazotoluene / 2-amino-4-nitrotoluene-p-chloroaniline / 2,4-diaminoanisole / 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane / 3,3-dichlorobenzidine /3,3-dimethoxybenzidine / 3,3-dimethylbenzidine / 3,3-dimethyl-4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane p-kresidin / 4,4-methylen-bis-(2-chloroaniline) / 4,4-oxydianiline / 4,4-thiodianiline / o-toluyendiamine / 2,4,5-trimethylaniline.


Labdip and color approval

Identity color measuring requirement and procedure. (Photo spectra meter follow up)




Fabric must be measured on the face side / Fabric must be folded to four thicknesses / Fabric must be measured with the Wales being in a horizontal plane / scanning must be on a white tile-surface.


Light sources.

Primary light source, artificial daylight reference D65 / Only one light source may be used for same project.


Shade matching

(Most important for re-dye)

1. Approved Lap dip against master standard (first Lot) after Re dye, Make a Continuity card from first dye lot called master standard. Next batch against master standard.
2. Remark: Lab dip is to give the dyer a master standard and recipe for approval and finding the master standard, for new batches the master standard must be used and controlled.


Extra info


Child labour
UGI does not accept any products that are manufactured with involvement of labour by children under the age of 16 and are manufactured in circumstances detrimental to the health, education and development of children.

Labour conditions
UGI does not accept products manufactured under working conditions that do not satisfy the generally acceptable standards of decency. This includes forced labour, i.e. by convicts forced to carry out hard labour during their imprisonment, labour in dangerous conditions, and labour that is detrimental to health.

Fabric consumption and quality control
UGI has the right to deliver due to quality inspections 5% more or less to our buyers from the ordered quantity without any restrictions to guaranty our high quality level during our production inspection.

Appendix III Quality Policy

Quality Policy

(Prevention but never fire fighting)



The data from which the Cost Reports are compiled should be so organised that such further investigations into specific excesses can proceed logically and without the need for too much re-analysis of basic documents.

Reports commonly take one of three main forms, corresponding to the main divisions of Quality Costs. The first is the Failure Cost Report. It is not usually difficult to produce adequate regular reports showing the level of failure costs - scrap, repairs, test rejections, after-sales service, customer returns etc. The essential data they should show includes the cause of failure, the value lost, and the department or process responsible (not necessarily the same, of course, as the department or process at which the failure was discovered and reported).

Supporting data for this report may include reporting point, description of product, part etc., and the responsible machine group or operative. Such supporting data is, however, probably best left out of reports for executive action. It may be more valuable in daily, un-costed, reports for information and action at "shop-floor" level.

The second type is the Appraisal Cost Report. This reflects the cost of operating the quality and reliability surveillance, as compared with budgeted expenditure. The division of account headings may sometimes make it difficult to include the cost of quality appraisal costs incurred by production operatives carrying out additional operations such as the inspection, testing, or grading of pieceparts, but such costs can sometimes be derived from a comparison of actual and standard times for the tasks, and included in a separate section of the report.

Finally, a Prevention Cost Report is required. So many functions of the typical business can be interpreted as contributing to Prevention Costs that it is normally wise to restrict reports to those areas which are being deliberately varied as part of the overall cost reduction project. The scope of such ad hoc reports can be enlarged to include data from which changes in Quality tactics can be planned. Such reports might include: an analysis of the effects on profits of changes in the system of setting manufacturing tolerances; the probable cost effects of introducing a Vendor Rating scheme; recommendations on the most economical points for inspection in a sequence of operations; and an investigation into the economics of buying new testing facilities.

Note that in studies involving a choice of methods we are concerned with the change in profit resulting from the decision - that is the difference in the profit-and-loss accounts before and after adopting the change. The costs which we use for studies of this nature are not likely to be the same as those used for normal cost accounting, for which purpose we have become used to the convention of expressing overheads as a percentage of - say - direct labour. This approach is unsuitable for finding the real cost, or change in cost, since in most cases the choice will cause little change in the fixed part of overhead costs, such as establishment and management expenses.


Here are steps that can be taken to reduce Quality Costs in your company:


  1. Find out what Failure Costs are. The cost headings to include are listed in the Appendix
  2. Decide, from the size of these preventable Failure Costs, the scale of extra quality control effort devoted to prevention and Appraisal which can be justified.
  3. Nominate a senior member of the organisation to have responsibility for quality control. He should be familiar with and able to lead and train his staff in all aspects of quality control
  4. Obtain from this manager a list of actions which can be taken, in the particular circumstances of your organisation, to reduce systematically your Failure Costs
  5. Evaluate the approximate probable benefit of each action in reducing Failure Costs
  6. Evaluate the approximate probable cost of each of these actions separately
  7. Choose the one or two actions which are seen to offer the probability of largest return for the cost to be incurred
  8. Make the quality controller responsible for seeing that these actions are taken and that the forecast benefits are actually secured
  9. Don't give him too much to do at one time
  10. Give him a firm date for completion: make it tight but not impossible
  11. Make sure he follows up each action and keeps it going
  12. Insist on regular reporting of progress in cost terms - but don't interfere with the authority that you have delegated to him
  13. As benefits are seen to flow from the first few - actions, initiate a few more from the original list - and insist that extra possibilities are constantly added to the list so that the process never comes to an end
  14. Find out what the Appraisal Costs are and, in an exactly similar way, initiate actions designed to reduce specific Appraisal Costs by improving Prevention activities.

The precise contribution to profit made by the control of the quality costs will naturally vary with the size, type, and technology of each individual company. However, these suggestions can be regarded as the typical requirements for any programme. Because almost all operations of a manufacturing company have some influence on Quality Costs, a full and accurate analysis of costs can become very complex and may itself be costly to produce. Approximations and estimates will often therefore be adequate. Finally it will always be desirable to keep cost calculations and presentations- simple- so that they can be understood readily by those who will be required to take action upon them.




"Prevention Costs", i.e. Costs of Attaining Reliability

Quality engineering, and testing through pre-production stages; material specifications and design tolerance.

Training Quality and Production personnel in quality attainment.

Preparing test specifications and quality standards.

Specifying test and inspection equipment.

Advising on specifications of the production facilities needed to maintain quality standards.

Testing and calibrating inspection and production facilities.

Quality administration.

Replacement of hand by machine operations.

Replacement of hand operated by automatic machines.

Providing mechanical handling facilities.

Providing adequate protective packing.

Providing adequate protective storage.

Providing bins etc. to protect components during process.


"Appraisal Costs", i.e. Costs of Maintaining Reliability

Vendor and incoming inspections.

Inspecting and testing products and facilities.

Field testing.

Maintaining, re-testing and calibrating inspection and production facilities.


"Failure Costs" (whether through faulty- -workmanship, design, acceptance standards, machinery, packing, transport etc.)

Work scrapped: material and labour costs.

Sorting out bad work.


Re-inspection and re-testing.

Technical and clerical effort spent investigating faults and complaints.

Warranty claims, and gratuitous after-sales service.

Loss due to sale as second-grade product.

Delay in payment by customer - interest on outstanding money.

Double handling charges.

Double transport charges.

Double packing charges






"Quality" is defined as that combination of design and properties of materials of a product which are needed for the intended end use and level of the market in which it is sold.

"Requisite Quality" is defined as the design and composition of a product, which has been thoroughly proved by adequate development work, in order to establish its reliability under the conditions to which it will be subjected in use and to avoid producing too high a grade of product for the intended market.


"To ensure that the requisite quality of product is achieved"

This ensures customer satisfaction, but it leaves quality control as a necessary but expensive evil


This means six things:

    1. Checking the suitability of raw materials,
    2. checking the manufacturing capability of the production undertaking
    3. monitoring production; feeding back information; responding to that information; and so getting defects removed at source
    4. reduction of the fault rate
    5. saving costs
    6. maintenance of product consistency

All of these factors increase the possibility of developing further business and the competitiveness of the company, and is therefore to the benefit of the company; Quality control thus becomes a positive -benefit.

A further point stems from one aspect of Q.C: continually monitoring production and deciding whether, in any part of the manufacturing chain, materials, machines or workmanship need attention to effect a reduction in the fault rate. It is very easy to "pass the buck" that is for production personnel to blame materials or to say that it is the responsibility of QC, and so relax any endeavour on their part to avoid faults. In fact, quality cannot be inspected into goods; it is to direct attention and effort towards the most effective areas for avoiding faults and to maintain product consistency.


Quality Assurance

"The establishment and maintenance of ALL activities and functions concerned with the attainment of requisite quality"

Quality Control

"The systems required for programming and coordinating the efforts of the various groups in an organisation to maintain the requisite quality" As such Quality Control is seen as the agent of Quality Assurance or Total Quality Control


Quality Control requires the establishment of adequate specifications with proper tolerances


To maximise the production of goods within the specified tolerances correctly the first time

By considering such information it can be decided what requires to be monitored. Monitoring the process is the essence of quality control. We now know where we wish to go and what is possible. -


The next stage after planning is to extract and expand along the guidelines established in the planning stage the technology or the basic know-how for each projected line. These technologies are;

Engineering - fabric, seams, garment

Communications and feedback sequences - without which there can be no control

Parameters - measurements and tolerances

Recording systems

Staffing decisions and the development of job specifications


This is the practical control application to the day-to-day running of the factory - and extends from the basic concept of a style right through to the dispatch of the correct boxed stock.


The above plan is a continuing procedure in the sense that if starting from scratch one might have to begin with monitoring to get immediate results. This is then followed by a continuing process of refinement along the lines of adding the checking of raw materials and improving feedback routines.


The requisite quality is the standard required to meet the needs of the customer: this must be determined and specified.

The specification must be clear and complete so that everybody from designer to production operative has a clear idea as to what is needed. Individuals within an organisation need only have parts of the specification that relates to their function.


To achieve a satisfactory design in relation to the level of choice in design, styles, colours, suitability of components and fitness of product for the market. This must be viewed in the context of overriding market considerations and production capabilities



  1. Itemise the variables that occur in production in order to provide a complete specification.
  2. Develop a specification in a number of parts or sections to ensure that all design and production staff have a clear idea as to what is needed
  3. Establish acceptable working tolerances in relation to all values on the specification.
  4. Establish fault rate recording systems
  5. Improve technical understanding
  6. Check consistency of incoming raw materials
  7. Select suitable instrumentation for determining specified manufacturing values
  8. Choose recording systems to provide a history of control S
  9. Select a method to assess operator effectiveness
  10. Commence testing
  11. Make periodic checks on
  12. Analyse results
  13. Cost the design quality in terms of:


Cost of failure

Cost of appraisal

Cost of prevention

  1. Develop through recording systems in the sampling department
  2. Prepare working standards and samples
  3. Monitor cost levels at all stages



Control must be applied to make sure that all goods passed to the customer reach the satisfactory level Planning procedures must be reviewed periodically


Cost of achieving the required standard of quality must be targeted at all stages -


The essential requirements for producing a reliable product have been stated as follows:

  1. A satisfactory design of product, thoroughly proved by adequate development testing in order to establish its reliability under the conditions to which it will be subjected in use. This is the Requisite Quality of the product.
  2. A full specification of the requirements of this quality, which must be clearly understood by everyone concerned with the production of the constituent parts and of the complete end product.
  3. Confirmation that the manufacturing processes are capable of meeting these requirements.
  4. Full acceptance, by all those concerned with production, of the responsibility for meeting the standards set by the specification.
  5. Checks on the product at every stage of manufacture to detect any departures from the specification.
  6. Record essential information derived from these checks to provide accurate evidence for action.
  7. Establishment of lines of communication, - i.e. Feedback to Production, - to ensure that this action is taken to effect the appropriate adjustments to materials, process and operatives to maintain FUTURE production within the specification.
  8. Instruction in the use, applications and limitations of the product.
  9. A study of user experience, feedback to the department's concerned, and rapid remedial action.

An important feature to realise in the establishment of these principles is that, whilst tolerances and quality standards for goods going for dispatch may often vary rapidly, depending on the urgency of call-off, it is the duty of Quality Control in enacting items 4-7 above, to stabilise the tolerances and quality standards for goods IN PRODUCTION, based on the recognised Requisite Quality and this largely established from the continual experience gained from item 9 above. Only by production personnel knowing exactly what is expected can they respond to the requirements of Quality Control.


The ideal situation is to keep the cost of conforming to the requisite quality as low as possible, whilst at the same time achieving the highest percentage of acceptable production.

To find if a company is approaching the optimum total cost trials need to be made to establish the costs of quality control and the cost of defectives.

As a first approximation and as a guide, this total cost is usually achieved when prevention costs = failure costs + appraisal costs

Quality Costs Sources of Cost information


Losses due to faulty and spoilt work

Examiners records



    1. additional materials
    2. extra labour
    3. disruption of production

Administrative Costs

  1. reaching agreement with customers
  2. replacing defectives or complaint adjustments
  3. office administration




  1. Control of outside supplies, salaries and equipment less reclaims from suppliers
  2. Inspection
  3. 1st examination and final examination
  4. Maintenance of test or inspection equipment
  5. Product value destroyed in testing materials consumed
  6. Services, e.g. electricity, water
  7. QC outside endorsements
  8. QC records & admin charges



Preparation and development of specifications

Time of personnel related to salaries

Developing consistency controls, e.g. use of stitch length


Operating consistency controls

Costs and salaries of department personnel

Evolving more effective processes

Quality awareness training Wages, account, and training costs

Maintenance of machinery to maintain product quality

Production records, wages and equipment costs.



The necessity of making conciliation occurs every time an idea or innovation needs to be assessed.

Suppose a new system has been thought up to meet a problem or situation which needs to be improved. The question before getting too involved in detailed planning of such a system, will be does it pay off? This question needs answering before much time, effort and money are spent.

  1. Look at the present situation. Ascertain the cost of failure in the area where the innovation could be expected to have some effect. Analyse available records. If these are inadequate consider making records for a trial period. The resultant cost gives the potential saving and the scale of costs involved.
  2. Make an assessment of the cost of carrying out the innovation - not so much the costs of installation as the continuing running and updating costs.
  3. Next consider what degree of potential saving is likely to be achieved as a result of implementing the innovation. In the absence of any guidelines assume 50% achievement. This will at least give a guide to what savings realistically might be achieved.
  4. Armed with this information a decision can be made, based on this assessment and the relevant recorded information. Keep notes as ideas and evidence develops. If the idea is worthwhile it is worth being persistent, but does not spoil a case by pressing for it before you are too sure, since time and credibility can easily be lost.

It is wise to seek a trial first, then the idea can justify itself on its own merits, or can easily be dropped if for any reason it proves to be unsuccessful.




  1. In a total quality control scheme, the total involvement of all personnel is required as a philosophy.
  2. The staff concerned in all duties must be given authority to carry out their functions. These functions should be defined.
  3. Lines of communication and responsibility should be established to carry out an effective policy. Horizontal communication at all levels of personnel between Quality Control, Production and other departments is needed. Also there must be vertical lines, which follow the lines of responsibility and authority. In order to achieve this aim, the terms of reference under which staff work, must be established. This is, perhaps, best accomplished by job descriptions.
  4. It is the job of Quality Control to establish the correct information concerning a quality situation, and present this clearly to their colleagues.
  5. Persons outside Quality Control must be authorised to make the commercial decisions involved from a pre-established series of options, the consequences of each being fully understood.
  6. Payment schemes should be re-examined where necessary to reward quality as well as production, in a balanced way, since both are commercially important.



Data is generated at each QC point. This must be recorded in simple systems to provide visual on-going checks. These records provide the means for personnel accountability and for rapid feedback for management action. -



The above data, immediately on being generated, is automatically entered on records as continuity charts, either in tabular, graphical or computerised form. This action takes very little time, and enables the current data to be compared with previous data and with other related Q. C. data. The visual impact of the presentation is immediate and creates rapid feed-back of vital information to production and other interested management personnel.


Approved Inspection Standard

Inspection Standard Customization

Negotiated with the manufacturer and stipulated by the buyer. ?

Specific Standard

Also can refer to quality standards in target markets.

The essential features of the standard are contained in the following basic requirements:-

  1. Quality System
  2. Organisation
  3. Review of Quality System
  4. Documentation/Records
  5. Equipment
  6. Purchased Materials and Services
  7. Manufacturing Control
  8. Work Instructions/Workmanship
  9. Corrective Action
  10. Completed Item and Inspection and Test
  11. Sampling Procedures
  12. Control on Non-conforming Material
  13. Alternative Inspection Procedures and Equipment
  14. Indication of Inspection Status
  15. Protection and Preservation of Product Handling, Storage and Delivery
  16. Training.




Quality System

To achieve the overall objective you will need to establish, document and maintain a system capable of ensuring that products conform in total to standards, specifications and sealed samples. This will be required at every stage of manufacture. Records must be maintained to give objective evidence that the specified requirements have been met.



You will need to appoint a management representative preferably independent of other functions to be responsible to oversee the total control system and inspection at each stage of manufacture. The person appointed should have the necessary authority to execute any action related to achieving the desired standard of product.


Review of the Quality System

To be effective the system requires planned periodic review by Senior Management to ensure its effectiveness is maintained. This will entail internal audits, which must be positive and not conducted solely as a matter of expediency resulting from a quality problem.



To be effective it is essential to establish and maintain clear, complete and current written records of inspection and test procedures for each operation.

These records should identify: -

    1. Criteria for acceptance/rejection.
    2. Action to be taken and by whom.
    3. Essential information and data to identify item and batch.
    4. Details of equipment and calibration.

Records must be kept up to date and be stored for easy access and retrieval and be available for examination.



All inspection, measuring and test equipment requires effective maintenance and calibration.


Purchased Materials and Services

The quality system must be capable of controlling the standards of materials and services supplied by third party suppliers.

Your purchasing documents must clearly define any desired standards or specification requirements.

All incoming goods from third party suppliers must be inspected and tested as appropriate and records maintained.


Manufacturing Control

In-work inspection should be conducted during manufacture on all characteristics, which cannot be left until final inspection to prevent subsequent sub-standard products. This type of inspection to be effective must act as a process control.


Work Instructions/Workmanship

The supplier must establish satisfactory written standards and representative samples or workmanship which must equate to standards and specifications laid down in Data Sheets, Make-up Specifications and Sealed Samples. These standards must provide an objective base on which decisions are made by skilled personnel.


Corrective Action

Documented procedures must be established and maintained to cover: -

  1. The prompt detection and correction of inferior quality
  2. A continual monitor of processes and work operations including performance testing
  3. The action to be taken with third party suppliers on receipt of sub-standard materials.
  4. The review of any corrective actions taken.


Completed Item Inspection and Testt

All finished products must be inspected and tested to ensure conformity against any relevant standard or -specification. The documented procedure established at this stage should ensure that any inspection or tests conducted at an earlier stage have been performed and the data obtained acted upon.


Sampling Procedures

Sampling procedures used should be such that any information gained from the sample equally relates to the bulk from which they were taken.


Control of Non-Conforming Material

There must be an effective system established to deal with non-conforming material to ensure it is clearly identified, segregated and disposed of. Adequate records must be maintained for subsequent review.

Any repair or rework activities to correct non-conforming material must be clearly identified and documented.


Alternative Inspection Procedures and Equipment

Where you wish to use alternative inspection procedures and equipment valid evidence must be available to ensure they provide equivalent assurance of quality.


Indication of Inspection Status

You must establish and maintain a procedure to clearly identify products at each stage of manufacture e.g. products not inspected; products inspected and passed; and products inspected and rejected.

Protection and Preservation of Product Quality during- -Handling, Storage and Delivery

Procedures and instruction must be established to:

  1. Clearly identify materials and products form receipt to despatch.
  2. Control and protect all materials and products during handling, manufacture, storage and delivery.
  3. Ensure finished products are stored and delivered commensurate to the quality standards demanded by the customer.



All personnel involved with the management of quality must be experienced to receive adequate training to ensure they are competent to perform their required task.

Training must be an ongoing commitment with appropriate records being maintained.

Management of progressive firms will always consider thoughtful and constructive suggestions, - from all levels of personnel. However, it may not be practical to implement every suggestion, perhaps for economic reasons.

The whole point of the economics of cleanliness is that, whilst it could be dangerously impractical to go to extreme lengths, every survey has shown that if -all- personnel will examine all their activities, a little extra time and trouble reduce soiling dramatically with consequent savings in seconds and the cost of recovery. It provides an excellent return on the effort involved. In fact experience again teaches that the greatest single factor involved is the attitude to dirt of all personnel.

Once orderliness and cleanliness has been established, any deviation is immediately apparent, and thus a state of order becomes far easier to maintain.

Most people will add to a pile of rubbish, but few will start one.